An Empirical Study of the Extreme Learning Machine for Twitter Sentiment Analysis

Onder Coban, Buse Melis Ozyildirim, Selma Ayse Ozel
  • Buse Melis Ozyildirim
    Cukurova University, Turkey
  • Selma Ayse Ozel
    Cukurova University, Turkey

Abstract

Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) method is proposed for single hidden layer feed-forward networks (SLFNs). The ELM
employs feed-forward neural network architecture and works with randomly determined input weights. In this aspect, ELM depends on
principle that enables to determine weights and biases in the network. In the first phase of ELM that can be named as feature mapping,
the usage of random values differs the ELM from other methods that employ a kernel function for feature mapping such as Support
Vector Machines (SVM) and Deep Neural Networks. After the feature mapping, the main goal of the ELM is to learn weights between
hidden and output layers by minimizing the error. The ELM has gained much more popularity recently; and can be utilized for
classification, regression, and dimension reduction. In literature, Twitter sentiment analysis is generally considered as a classification
task. Therefore, in this study, the basic ELM is utilized for Twitter sentiment analysis and compared with the SVM which is one of the
most successful machine learning algorithms used for sentiment analysis. Experiments are conducted on two different Turkish datasets.
Experimental results show that the performance of the two methods are slightly different, but SVM outperforms basic ELM.

Keywords

Twitter, Sentiment Analysis, Support Vector Machine, Extreme Learning Machine

Full Text:

PDF
Submitted: 2017-10-16 23:10:39
Published: 2018-09-26 07:04:22
Search for citations in Google Scholar
Related articles: Google Scholar

References

S. Sommer et al., “Analyzing customer sentiments in microblogs–A topic-model-based approach for Twitter datasets,” In Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, Detroit, USA, 2011.

M. Michelson and S. A. Macskassy, “Discovering users’ topics of interest on twitter: a first look,” In Proceedings of the fourth workshop on Analytics for noisy unstructured text data, Toronto, Canada, 2010, pp. 73-80.

A Survey of Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis, B. Liu and L. Zhang, In Mining Text Data, C. Aggarwal, C. Zhai, eds, Boston, MA, Springer, Boston, 2012.

Twitter, 2016; Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter

A. Giachanou and F. Crestani, “Like it or not: A survey of twitter sentiment analysis methods,” ACM Computing Surveys., vol. 49, no. 2, 2016, Art. no. 28.

G. Huang et al., “Trends in extreme learning machines: a review,” Neural Networks, vol. 61, pp. 32-48, 2015.

G. B. Huang, Q. Y. Zhu, and C. K. Siew, “Extreme learning machine: theory and applications,” Neurocomputing, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 489-501, 2006.

T. Joachims, “Text categorization with support vector machines: Learning with many relevant features,” In 10th European Conference on Machine Learning, Chemnitz, Germany, 1998, pp. 137-142.

G. B. Huang, D. H. Wang, and Y. Lan, “Extreme learning machines: a survey,” International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107-122, 2011.

G. Huang et al., “Semi-supervised and unsupervised extreme learning machines,” IEEE transactions on cybernetics, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2405-2417, 2014.

F. BenoíT et al., “Feature selection for nonlinear models with extreme learning machines,” Neurocomputing, vol. 102, pp. 111-124, 2013.

S. Poria et al., “Sentic patterns: Dependency-based rules for concept-level sentiment analysis,” Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 69, pp. 45-63, 2014.

E. Cambria et al., “An ELM-based model for affective analogical reasoning,” Neurocomputing, vol. 149, pp. 443-455, 2015.

W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and H. Lu, “Text categorization based on regularization extreme learning machine,” Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 447-456, 2013.

X. G. Zhao et al., “XML document classification based on ELM,” Neurocomputing, vol. 74, no. 16, pp. 2444–2451, 2011.

X. Wang et al., “A depression detection model based on sentiment analysis in micro-blog social network,” In Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 201-213.

M. Çetin and M. F. Amasyali, “Supervised and traditional term weighting methods for sentiment analysis,” In Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference, Haspolat, Turkey, 2013, pp. 1-4.

A. Hayran and M. Sert, “Sentiment analysis on microblog data based on word embedding and fusion techniques,” In Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference, Antalya, Turkey, 2017, pp. 1-4.

O. Coban, B. Ozyer, and G. T. Ozyer, “A Comparison of Similarity Metrics for Sentiment Analysis on Turkish Twitter Feeds,” In IEEE International Conference on Smart City/SocialCom/SustainCom (SmartCity), Chengdu, China, 2015, pp. 333-338.

A. Go, R. Bhayani, and L. Huang, “Twitter sentiment classification using distant supervision,” Stanford, CA, USA, CS224N Project Report, 2009.

Apache. Lucene. Available from: https://lucene.apache.org/core/

A. A. Akın and M. D. Akın, “Zemberek, an open source nlp framework for turkic languages,” Structure, vol. 10, 2007.

C. Whitelaw, N. Garg, and S. Argamon, “Using appraisal groups for sentiment analysis,” In Proceedings of the 14th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management, Bremen, Germany, 2005, pp. 625-631.

I. Kanaris et al., “Words vs. character n-grams for anti-spam filtering,” International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, pp. 1-20, 2006.

H. Lodhi et al., “Text classification using string kernels,” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 2, pp. 419-444, 2002.

O. Coban and G. T. Ozyer, “The impact of term weighting method on Twitter sentiment analysis,” Pamukkale Univ Muh Bilim Derg., to be published. DOI: 10.5505/pajes.2016.50480.

G. Salton and C. Buckley, “Term-weighting approaches in automatic text retrieval,” Information processing & management, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 513-523, 1988.

G. B. Huang and H.A. Babri, “Upper bounds on the number of hidden neurons in feedforward networks with arbitrary bounded nonlinear activation functions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Networks., vol. no. 1, pp. 224–229, 1998.

Y. W. Huang and D. H. Lai, “Hidden node optimization for extreme learning machine,” Aasri Procedia., vol. 3, pp. 375–380, 2012.

S. Xu, J. Wang, “A fast incremental extreme learning machine algorithm for data streams classification,” Expert Systems with Applications., vol. 65, pp. 332-344, 2016.

G. B. Huang, Q. Y. Zhu, and C. K. Siew, “Extreme learning machine: a new learning scheme of feedforward neural networks,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Budapest, Hungary, 2004, pp. 985-990.

A. Gosso, and M. A. Gosso, “Package ‘elmNN’,” ELM Package Version 1.0, July. 17, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/elmNN/index.html

Burges, C. J. (1998). A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition. Data mining and knowledge discovery, 2(2), 121-167.

D. Fradkin and I. Muchnik, “Support vector machines for classification,” DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 70, 13-20, 2006.

The four outcomes of a classifier. Available from: https://classeval.wordpress.com/introduction/basic-evaluation-measures/

R. Kohavi, “A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection,” In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Montreal, Canada, 1995, pp. 1137-1145.

L.J. Sheela, “A Review of Sentiment Analysis in Twitter Data Using Hadoop,” International Journal of Database Theory and Application, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77-86, 2016.

Abstract views:
60

Views:
PDF
29




Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
 
© Prof.Dr. Ismail SARITAS 2013-2018     -    Address: Selcuk University, Faculty of Technology 42031 Selcuklu, Konya/TURKEY.